Gretchen Hofmann

Professor and Chair
(805) 893-6175
4310 Marine Science Building
Hofmann Lab


Work in the Hofmann Lab group focuses on the ecological physiology of marine organisms, in particular kelp, invertebrates and perciform fishes. Although the research projects in the lab are quite diverse, we are collectively interested in understanding the role of temperature and oceanographic features in setting species' distribution patterns in the marine environment.

Currently, there are five main research projects in the Hofmann Lab

  • Macrophysology in the marine environment: Are species more physiologically stressed at the extremes of their biogeographic range?
  • Environmental genomics: Using DNA microarrays to map patterns of gene expression onto species range in the marine environment
  • Gene expression profiling & cold adaptation: Comparisons of gene expression in Antarctic and New Zealand notothenioid fishes
  • Larval physiology: Examining thermotolerance of marine invertebrate larvae from a biogeographical perspective
  • Temperature stress physiology of corals (

Selected Publications

  • Evans, T.G., F. Chan, B.A. Menge and G.E. Hofmann (2012) Transcriptomic responses to ocean acidification in larval sea urchins from a naturally low pH environment. Molec. Ecology (in revision)
  • Kelly, M.W. and G.E. Hofmann (2012) Adaptation and the physiology of ocean acidification. Functional Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.02061.x
  • Evans, T.G and G.E. Hofmann (2012) Defining the limits of physiological plasticity: how gene-expression can assess and predict the consequences of ocean change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367: 1733-1745.
  • Hammond, L.M. and G.E. Hofmann (2012) Early developmental gene regulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in response to elevated CO2 seawater conditions. J. Exp. Biol. 215: 2445-2454.
  • Hofmann, G.E., T.R. Martz + 16 co-authors (2011) High-frequency dynamics of ocean pH: a multi-ecosystem comparison. PLoS ONE 6(12): e2898 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028983.
  • Yu, P.C., P.G. Matson, T.R. Martz and G.E. Hofmann (2011) The ocean acidification seascape and its relationship to the performance of calcifying marine invertebrates: laboratory experiments on the development of urchin larvae framed by environmentally-relevant pCO2/pH. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 400: 288-295.
  • Matson, P.G., T.R. Martz and G.E. Hofmann (2011) High frequency observations of pH under Antarctic sea ice in the southern Ross Sea. Ant. Sci. 23: 607-613.
  • Sewell, M.A., G.E. Hofmann (2011) Antarctic echinoids and climate change: a major impact on brooding forms. Global Change Biology 17: 734-744.
  • Hofmann, G.E. and A.E. Todgham (2010) Living in the Now: Physiological mechanisms of response to climate change. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 72:127-145.
  • Hofmann, G.E., J.P. Barry, P.J. Edmunds, R.D. Gates, D.A. Hutchins, T. Klinger and M.A. Sewell (2010) Ocean acidification impacts on calcifying marine organisms in marine ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 41: 127-147.